Why Repenting of Sins is Done Through YHVH, Only

Why repenting of sins is done through YHVH


By: William J Jackson

After the golden calf incident in Exodus 32:8, Israel was in the “proverbial doghouse” with YHVH, so Moses went to Him and interceded on their behalf. He even offered his life for Israel’s forgiveness; but this simply isn’t how it works… and as we read on in Exodus 32, we soon see that Moses clearly doesn’t get to pay for Israel’s sins; and for that matter, he doesn’t get to pay for anyone’s sins. So where is it at, that the New Testament writers come up with these ideas that someone can die for another person’s sins (Romans 5:6-8, 1 John 3:16, 1 Peter 3:18), when YHVH makes it so clear in His word (the Torah), that this isn’t how it’s done?

Actually YHVH said, “I will bring their sin to account against them” (Exodus 32:34)… then He punished them.

Question: So why couldn’t Moses pay for Israel’s sins with his life?

Answer: Because HaShem is just and holds people accountable. Also, He established a standard not allowing people to pay for the sins of others even with their lives, (Deuteronomy 24:16, Jeremiah 31:29-30, 2 Chronicles 25:4 and 2 Kings 14:5-6).

Question: When did HaShem change this law?

Answer: HaShem never change it, He doesn’t change.

(Numbers 23:19, Malachi 3:6, Habakkuk 2:3, Isaiah 46:10-11, Psalm 33:11, Proverbs 19:21, Job 23:13).

Question: If no one can intercede for me, who do I turn to with my sin?

Answer: Turn to your ONLY Savior, YHVH.

(2 Samuel 22:2-3, Psalm 18:2, 24:5, 38:22, 40:17, 42:5,11, 43:5, 65:5, 68:19, 70:5, 106:21, Isaiah 43:3,11,45:15, 49:26, 60:16, 62:11, 63:7-9, Jeremiah 14:8, Hosea 13:4, Zephaniah 3:17)

Question: How do we atone for our sins?

Answer: We do not do sacrifices (Amos 5:21, Isaiah 1:11, Jeremiah 6:20, 7:21-23, Hosea 8:13)… rather; we repent to Him with a remorseful heart. (Psalm 22:24, 34:18, 51:17,107:22, Isaiah 57:15, 66:2, Hosea 6:6, 1 Kings 8:47-50)

Conclusion: YHVH holds us accountable for our own choices and actions. No other human can take our sins from us. HaShem wants us to go to Him with a repented heart… pretty simple.

The Abraham Principle Verses The Noah Principle:

Abraham vs Noah


By: William J Jackson

Both Noah and Abraham posses a bigger than life presence in the Torah. It took Adonai to harness their abilities to help in forming and shaping the direction of our world. Although these two men share similarities (family men, righteous, proactive…etc) their unique characteristics were dramatically opposite each other. Much can be learned about ourselves when studying these diametrically opposed personalities.


Lamech, Noah’s father, foreseen his son as a savior, a comforter, (Genesis 5:28-29) this is why he named him Noah, which is the Hebrew name for “comfort”(1). True to form, Noah was the first man in Torah to be called righteous, as it says he walked with HaShem”, (Genesis 6:9, 7:1). Noah, a man who was single minded, was unshakable in performing the tasks handed down by HaShem. He was like a Marine with a single objective. As we know, due to the evil in the world, HaShem had a specific mission and Noah was the right man for the job, a righteous man. As Torah says “…he did all that G-d ordered him to do”, (Genesis 6:22). As simple as this sounds, many of us fall short daily in trying to meet the will of the Master. During Noah’s time HaShem was not looking for a man to save the world, He was looking for a man that could lead the survivors into a new world.


Unlike Noah, Father Abraham was far more complex. It should be noted that after Abraham passed (Genesis 25:8), the Torah still spoke of him with reverence (Genesis 28:13, 31:42, 53, 32:10, 50:24, Exodus 3:6, 15-16…etc), whereas Noah seems forgotten about after his death (Genesis 9:28-29 ). As we discussed earlier “Noah did all that Adonai ordered him to do.” (Genesis 7:5) and this is where the differences began.  Abraham did beyond what was required of him (2). For example, remember when Abraham pleaded for Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:16-33). This was directly after he was circumcised (Genesis 17:24) “Oy vey!” circumcision at 99 years of age! Then three strangers just show up out of nowhere where Abraham invited them for a meal he made himself(3). Compounding to all this, Abraham was also told he and Sarah would be receiving a son (Genesis 18:10).  The news of Isaac had a profound impact on this elderly couple. Still, Abraham in spite of all these many things felt inclined to fight for the men and women of Sodom and Gomorrah. We should take a lesson from this selfless act. HaShem commanded us to do more than follow orders, we are to care about our fellow man (Exodus 23:9, Deuteronomy 10:18, 24:17,Isaiah 1:17, Zechariah 7:10) (4).

Others that fit the mold:

There are many like Noah in Tanakh, those that had an individual mission. As we see in Ezekiel 14 along with Noah both Daniel and Job, who were great men yet are seen as men whose righteousness saved only themselves (Ezekiel 14:14,18,20). Conversely, somebody like Moses more fits the Abrahamic blueprint.  Moses’ nature was always to intercede for others (Exodus 32:30-32 and Numbers 14:13-16). The Prophet Jonah is an example of a man who wanted a Noah like mission in life but was forced out of his comfort zone by HaShem. You see, HaShem wanted Jonah to tell Israel’s arch enemy Nineveh to repent (Jonah 1:1-2) and Jonah wasn’t having any of it (Jonah 1:3). As we know, in the end, Jonah broke down and did what was required by Adonai, (Jonah 3:4-5).


The lesson between these personality types is that although we may start off focusing on “…doing all the Adonai orders…”(Genesis 7:5), we also need to find the willingness to get out of ourselves and “…defend the rights of the poor and needy” (Proverbs 31:9).


(1) NOAH, The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, JewishEncyclopedia.com

(2) By Rabbi James Jacobson-Maisels, From Noah to Abraham, My Jewish Learning

(3) By: William Jackson, (March 1, 2015), Abraham Our Model for a Selfless Host, Center for Tanakh Based Studies.

(4) By: William Jackson, (June 13, 2015), We are COMMANDED to be Charitable, Center for Tanakh Based Sudies.

(5) Prophets and Prophecy, Judaism 101

We are COMMANDED to be Charitable

Charity 2


By: William J Jackson

Welcome to Torah portion 37, “Shelach” (1) and as usually Israel is complaining and will suffer the consequences of her gripping. Here the Israelites are resisting going into the “Land of Milk and Honey” (2), because of fear of her enemies. HaShem wants to destroy the Israelites and start new but Moses intercedes, as usual. Moses has a history of interceding for Israel (Exodus 17:8-13, 32:30-33, Numbers 16, 21:7-9) This is particularly interesting since in the beginning he never wanted the job of being their leader (Exodus 4:1,10, 13, 6:30). Here we will see revealed in Torah that HaShem has more than a soft spot for those that help others, He actually demands it.

Charitability (it’s not just a nice thing to do);

Some of us feel that being charitable and speaking up for the needy is a nice thing to do but we sometimes don’t see it as critical as the Commandments. You know, kind of like doing extra on top of following HaShem’s law. King Solomon hints at this in Proverbs (Proverbs 11:25, 19:17, 31:8-9). In much of the Tanakh it’s implied that being charitable is just basically a good thing to be. Yet, we all know the story of Sodom and Gomorrah. Did you ever ask yourself why the residence of this original “Sin City” were killed? Yeah,.. sure,… because of sexual immorality, I was taught that to, but what does the Tanakh say in it’s entirety? There were actual seven reasons for the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (3), being non-charitable was one of them. Go ahead check it out in Ezekiel 16:49. “Wow, so not being charitable is a crime?”.  Yes  and not only that, it’s a crime worthy of death.

Our relationship with the less fortunate:

Let’s leave the prophets for a minute and see what the Torah says. We all know where YHVH gave us the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:1-14, but what we sometimes forget is that was not all that YHVH delivered that day. YHVH also delivered a comprehensive set of laws that dealt with topics like observances, property and social responsibilities, see Exodus 20:19-23:19. Sometimes, us focusing on the 10 Commandments causes us to eclipse the importance of the other laws. In these many rulings HaShem states not only that we will not take advantage of the unfortunates but our lives are in danger if we do so Exodus 22:21-23. As we read on in Tanakh it shapes our understanding of the relationship we are to have with those that are than less fortunate, both being called to protect and love them (Exodus 23:9, Deuteronomy 10:18, 24:17,Isaiah 1:17, Zechariah 7:10). Additionally, we also see that HaShem will deliver justice to those who do not do this; Deuteronomy 27:19, Ezekiel 16:49, 18:10-13, Malachi 3:5.  The important piece is that those that are less fortunate than us are not less than us, they are just another version of ourselves (Exodus 22:20, 23:9, Deuteronomy 10:19, 23:8, Leviticus 19:33-34).

Giving a helping hand (even if you don’t want to):

If we read Deuteronomy 22:4 it doesn’t tell us we should help others, it states we have to help others. Actually, in Exodus 23:5 it takes it a step further and says we are to help people we don’t even like. I think that what is implied here is that we don’t just help those we like because although this might make us feel selfless, it doesn’t always mean that we are being selfless. Conversely, when we help people that can’t benefit us our motives are pure, and better yet if we help others that don’t know we are helping them (anonymous) our motives are at there purest. Simply said, the further we remove ourselves from receiving credit for our charitable actions the more pious are our motives. The Hebrew word for charity is “Tzedakah” and in Judaism, based off the principle we just discussed, there are different levels of Tzedakah.

The levels of charity (Tzedakah), from the least meritorious to the most meritorious, are (4):

  1. Giving begrudgingly
  2. Giving less that you should, but giving it cheerfully.
  3. Giving after being asked
  4. Giving before being asked
  5. Giving when you do not know the recipient’s identity, but the recipient knows your identity
  6. Giving when you know the recipient’s identity, but the recipient doesn’t know your identity
  7. Giving when neither party knows the others identity
  8. Helping the recipient to become self-reliant


If we are to factor in bible studies, prayers and worship we must factor in charity into our personal lives. T.C. Leach, the writer of “Rise and Shine in the Community”, gives us a comprehensive list of things we can do to be more charitable (5). It is probably a good idea to schedule some serve work into ones life on a routine bases.  Aside from penciling in these activities we should also be on the look out to do a good deed, they will sneak up on you throughout the day.


I feel inclined to voice some disclaimers.

1. Be Prudent: First we should always show prudence (caution) when helping out (Proverbs 8:12, 13:16, 27:12). For example if your going to help out the “homeless” it’s wiser to do it with someone or with an organization and not by yourself.

2. Don’t Enable: Another good point is show discretion for those you help. Make sure how you help does not make you an enabler. For example its better to pay bills or for groceries for some people than it is to give them money.

3. Don’t be a Patsy: And finally, just remember “we are to be a welcome mat not a door mat”. Simply said we should help others but not at the expense of our own dignitary. If our good nature is being taking advantage of we need to back off.

Above all else don’t allow these disclaimers to be your excuse to do nothing.


(1) Parshah Shelach, Numbers 13:1-15:41, Chabad.org

(2) By: William Jackson, (March 1, 2015), Why is Israel referred to as a land flowing with milk and honey? Center for Tanakh Based Studies

(3) By: William Jackson, (March 1, 2015) The actual reasons Sodom and Gomorrah was destroyed. Center for Tanakh Based Studies

(4) Tzedakah: Charity, Judaism 101

(5) By: T C Leach (June 8, 2015), Rise and Shine in the Community, Center for Tanakh Based Studies

When did YHVH and Satan Become Equal



By: William J Jackson

Some people believe that there are two battling forces; YHVH and Satan. This concept is known as “Religious Dualism”. It was introduced by a religious sect called Zoroastrianism. These pagans were founded by the Iranian prophet Zoroaster in the 6th century BC (1). They complied to the theology which history is a cosmic struggle between the powers of good and evil. Everything is seen as polarized and having a good and evil aspect; i.e. light is good and dark is evil (2)


Figure 1 Zoroastrianism

This theology does is not supported by the Tanakh (OT). For example “The Satan” is not in charge of the enemy camp but is controlled by YHVH. We see this in Job when YHVH tasks Satan to test Job (Job 1:12) and in Zechariah 3 where YHVH rebukes Satan on Joshua’s behalf. The Tanakh doesn’t change it’s theology but some Jews in the last century of BCE did. They started to use the idea that their enemies, such as the Greeks and the Romans, were in fact opposed to the G-d of Abraham. Later on in the first century the new Christian movement found themselves in conflict with the Jewish establishment (3). Since everything opposed to ones agenda was interpreted as evil it was easy to adapt this pagan concept into Christianity, for example “the reason all Jews didn’t become Christian was because of Satan”, or the devil blinded them, (2 Corinthians 4:4). Introduction of this non-Jewish belief would have been consistent since many new concepts were infused into the NT, i.e. Exclusivism, Koinonia, Gnosticism, Hellenistic Judaism, Zealotry…etc.


Q: So who is responsible for evil?

A: Isaiah 45:6-7 “… I am the Lord and there is no other. Who forms light and creates darkness, Who makes peace and creates *EVIL; I am the Lord, Who makes all these.

Many Christian translations try to cover for HaShem by using a different word for evil:

NIV “disaster”

NLT “bad times”

NASB “calamity”

But the Hebrew word used in scripture is “ra‘” which is “evil” (Strong’s 7451).

Actually the KJB says “evil”

Also look into Jeremiah 51:20, Isaiah 31:2, Amos 3:6, Ecclesiastes 7:13-14, Psalm 75:8, 104:20-23, clearly YHVH is responsible for everything.

One could also say that since we are given “free will” (Deuteronomy 11:26, 30:15, 19, Joshua 24:15, Psalm 119:30, Proverbs 16:9) evil can become a necessary byproduct for choosing wrong. For example (within reason) if a parent allows a child to choose right or wrong to teach them responsibility, is the parent at fault for the child choosing wrong? Some might argue this point but it is a critical step to mature a child.

Conclusion: Those that exclusively follow the Tanakh (OT) are Monotheism, which is the belief in the one Elohim, G-d. Believing that Satan is a god (John 12:31, Acts 26:18, 1 John 5:19, 2 Corinthians 4:4, Revelation 12:9) even a lesser god, would put you in violation of the first commandment “Only one God” (Exodus 20:3, Deuteronomy 4:35, 6:4, 32:39, Isaiah 41:4, 43:10-11, 44:6)

Q: When did G-d and Satan become equal?

A: Never


(1) Zoroastrianism at a glance, BBC, Dated 2009-10-02

(2) By R. J. Zwi Werblowsky, DUALISM: Moral Dualism, Jewish Virtual Library, Dated 2013

(3) by Tom Radcliffe, The Birth of Dualism: a review of The Origin of Satan by Elaine Pagels, Dated 2000-07-29

Figure 1 Is Zoroastrianism a True Religion?, Opposining Views

The Crime of the Reluctant Israelites



By: William J Jackson

As we start this weeks Torah portion “Shelach” (1), we see Moses sending a scouting party to reconnoiter “The Promise Land”.  A good idea before Israel occupies it. The scouts selected for this task were representatives of each tribe and had specific instruction to determine the agricultural quality and the threat level of Canaan’s inhabitants. After 40 days this scouting party returned with a favorable account of the lands soil but a less than favorable account of the forces that occupied this paradise on earth. Due to their method of reporting all but 2 of the scouts would be ostracized by HaShem, being denied the opportunity to settle this fertile region. This punishment would be transferred to many of the Israelites for their unfavorable participation. What was their crime, did they lie, or was it worse? Through HaShem’s word we will try to determine the transgressions of the scouts and Israel.

In Numbers 13:25-29 we see that although the scouts gave a good sampling of Canaan’s crops, they also depicted the land as completely controlled by Israel’s enemies (2):


Figure 1

  • South: The Amalekites controlled (Negev).
  • South East: Jebusites, and Amorites occupied the Mountainous Region.
  • East West: Canaanites had both the Mediterranean Coast and Jordan Valley.

When the scouts returned they gave what Numbers 13:32 calls a “bad report”. So what does this really mean? Well the word used here for bad report is “dibbah”. This Hebrew word also means defamation and to spread rumors (3). So did they lie? Did they fabricate these numerous enemy forces that controlled the region, (Numbers 13:29to not pursue HaShem’s promise for Israel? If so why?

When we hear about the scouts reporting their findings, it was not all bad. On the up side, they did confirm this was a land of “milk and honey” (Numbers 13:27). This phrase is a direct quote predicted by HaShem a year earlier (4) as we see in Exodus 3:8. In this same verse HaShem also warns that this land is occupied by the same deadly forces the scouts discovered. This is confirms again in Numbers 14:25 ,Deuteronomy 7:1 and Joshua 11:3. So we know that the Amalekites, Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites and Canaanites were not an embellishment in the scout’s report.

So if this “report” was not a lie why was it bad? Simply stated, it was a slant which communicated a lack of confidence and unbelief in HaShem. These representatives from each of the tribes were pessimistic, and their report meet it’s intended purpose by infecting the people causing them to second guess Israel’s mission, (Numbers 14:1-2). From here things perpetuated, the people wanted to throw out Moses and establish a new leader (Numbers 14:4). The Israelites were so crazed in their fear of taking Canaan that they wanted to kill the two scouts (Numbers 14:10), Caleb and Joshua, that remained positive about Adonai’s mission.  So conflicted were the Israelites they actual wanted to return to Egypt (Numbers 14:3).

Maybe this is why HaShem commanded earlier for Israel not to give false reports (Exodus 23:1). The consequences for not believing in HaShem, especially after witnessing all His miracles, was that none of these people over the age of accountability (20 years old) would be allowed to come into the Promise Land (Numbers 14:22-23, 26-29). They would sooner die in the desert. Yet there were two men who would avoid this punishment, Caleb and Joshua. What was the unique thing they did that Israel didn’t? It was their willingness to follow HaShem regardless of the circumstances (Numbers 14:24,30).

The crime that the reluctant scouts and Israelites committed was not lying, it was not having faith in HaShem. When we come against conflict in our own lives many times instead of turning towards the Master we turn towards ourselves and it’s no wonder we come up short. By procrastinating or avoiding a necessary conflict our minds make things bigger and worse than they actually appear. Before long we become prisoners of our own anxiety, we regress (5), we return to captivity, to Egypt. HaShem wants us to pursue the promises for us and not to short Him or ourselves (Psalm 32:8-10, 37:7-9, 55:23 ).

Joshua 1:9 Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be frightened, and do not be dismayed, for the Lord your God is with you wherever you go.”


(1) Parshah Shelach, Numbers 13:1-15:41, Chabad.org

(2) Numbers 13:29, Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible

(3) By Ron Daly, The Improper Use at the Tongue, Truth Magazine

(4) Complete Biblical Timeline, Bible Hub

(5) By Kendra Cherry, Defense Mechanisms; Regression, About Education

Figure 1 Notebook: The Conquest of Canaan, (NOV 09) Believer’s Magazine

Rise and Shine in the Community


BY: TCLeach at http://throughanewlens.blogspot.com

For the past several weeks, we have been taking a look at being the light inside of our own homes, and at shining light into our relationships. This week we will look at out stepping out the front door, and finding the places we can shine HaShem’s light as we go about our day. So far, we are looking at very general ways to obey the Scriptures that say we are to be light. We’re laying a foundation that we’ll build on in future posts, when we cover more specific areas that tend to fall into shadows. Marriage, teenagers, secular friends and pornography are just some of the issues that will be featured in future posts. The foundation of any light-shining will always begin within us, by making sure we are connected to the Light Source, our Father above us! Next we radiate to those nearest to us, those who reside under our roof. When we are aglow and we’ve illuminated our own home, we are ready to step out, into the community.

Please Note: If you are home-bound, there are still ways for you to impact your community! Later in this same post, you’ll also find some helpful hints!

It isn’t hard to find the need all around us! People are being overwhelmed by shadows, wanting nothing more than to have some light shone on them. Some goodness, to offer them a glimpse of hope. HaShem has endowed us each in some capacity to help others. Some have money to give. Some have talents to share, and some have the precious commodity of time to spend. Take a moment to think about what it is you have to offer. I have a condition that limits me physically, and because of it, I am also limited financially. But I have plenty of time to give, and having been on the receiving end of someone helping me with their time, I know it is valuable. Here are just a few of the places in our community where we can shine The Father’s Light:

  • Nursing Homes: Our seniors spent a lifetime serving their own homes and communities, yet often find themselves facing their final years alone. A simple phone call will reveal the need for volunteers in any facility. We can visit with these dear souls, read to them, or even organize an activity, like quilting or other hobby-based social gathering.
  • Hospitals/Veterans Hospitals: Again, a phone call to the Volunteer Coordinator will reveal the need for their patients. The Pediatric Unit is often short on people to sit with the very young who are hospitalized when their parents have to work. And anyone who is infirm could use a cheerful visitor, and a word of hope.
  • Schools: The amount of students who are carrying heavy home burdens to school is ever on the rise! Broken homes, addiction and poverty are spreading like a pandemic. It is easier to intervene in the lives of the young than it is to repair broken adults. Students need mentors, tutors, and people that encourage them to live up to their potential. Even if…especially if you have no kids in school, get involved in your local school system!
  • Habitat for Humanity: This program provides hard workers who struggle financially with the opportunity to experience home ownership. The home-owner works with volunteers to build their home from the foundation up. It’s not just hammers and saws, contact your local HFH office to find out how else you can help!
  • Shelter/Food Dispensaries: From the beginning, HaShem set up a system to care for the needy. Until the Messiah is in reign, the needy will not cease from our land. Most communities have programs in place, and most are very much in need of help! A little investigating will reveal where your help will best fit.

All of the places I listed above need your time. They need a human being to touch the lives of other human beings. Some of the places need your talent and skills. They need a human doing, not just a human being. A couple of them need some financial backing. They might have willing hands, but empty wallets. If we are serious about wanting to go about shining HaShem’s light, He will be faithful to provide us with opportunities to do so! Sometimes we have to be creative with how we can help others, but make no mistake, we CAN find a way to do it!

I mentioned earlier that there is something every believer can do to shine light in the community, even from home! If you’re unable to get out of the house for any reason, take courage! You can still help by giving from your checkbook, by sharing your talent or by investing your time. You just have to get even more creative. From home, and even without money, you can:

  • Reach out by phone to others who are home-bound. Sometimes a friendly call can really brighten someone’s day…maybe even your own!
  • Utilize the internet for the same reason. There are many, many lonely people in the world!
  • If you have a hobby  like knitting or a skill like sewing, you could make items to donate to homeless shelters, or women’s shelters.
  • Some organizations need volunteers to write letters or make phone calls. Call your local community center for ideas and suggestions.
  • If you are able, consider tutoring, or even babysitting for your neighbor.

We can be making a difference and shining HaShem’s light everyday! We don’t have to wait around for an opportunity to open for us, with some creativity, we can find an opportunity. Without question, the need is all around us. Go about doing good in the name of HaShem, go about being light. Reach out to needy hands with whatever resources you have to offer. Be known in your community for your kindness and love!

The Mixed Multitude, The Rabble

The Mixed Multitude, The Rabbleb Pic


By: William J Jackson

This week we read Torah portion 36, also known as Behaalotecha which means “when you step up”. We have an interesting group introduced after Israel leaves Sinai. They are called “The Rabble” or in other interpretations “The Mixed Multitude”. This ungrateful gathering of malcontents seem not to be satisfied with the manna that HaShem has provided. Although manna is not as exciting as steak dinners, by accounts, manna doesn’t appear to be all that bad (Numbers 11:7-9). This, however, doesn’t prevent this entitled bunch from wanting the finer things for their pallets. So, who is this group of critics causing so much discontent in camp and heartache for Moses?

Many sources connect this group with the mixed multitude that left Egypt with the Israelites in Exodus 12:38. This is understandable because the Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) refers to both groups as a “mixed crowd” and the New Living Translation (NLT) refers to both of them as “rabble”. Because of the same use in words other sources take liberties in connecting these groups. The Zohar, which is Jewish mysticism (Kabbalah) says that this “Mixed Multitude” was a gathering of non-Hebrew converts that would never become part of Israel (2). Other references take it a step further and has this group being the chief influence that seduces Israel into sin (3). A lot of blame is placed on this supposedly non-Jewish group. Lets refer to the Jewish language, Hebrew, to determine who they are.

In Numbers 11:4 This group is called “asaphsuph” which does means rabble but this is the only time this word is used in Tanakh. Whereas the group in Exodus 12:38 is called “rāḇ‘ê·reḇ” which is abundant mixed company. This group of non-Hebrew leaving Egypt in Exodus could have been the other slaves and/or Gers. Remember, the 10 plagues would have convinced many who lived in Egypt that YHVH was the one and only Elohim, (G-d). This certainly would have inspired a following, especially since Egypt was now destitute.

As we know a rabble is a large group of loud people who could become violent (4). It is possible that some of these non-Israelites leaving Egypt might have been “asaphsuph” (rabble). We also know that it does not necessarily mean that the rabble were not Israelites. These could have been both foreigners and Israelites prone to complaining. Proof of this is that Israel was very capable of complaining without being inspired by other people (Exodus 16:8, Numbers 11:1, 14:27, 29, 36, 17:6, 20, Deuteronomy 1:27). But, what if the Zohar is right and these are the non-Israelites not inheriting the covenant? Let’s turn to Moses for our answer. As we look forward about 40 years after this event with the rabble, Moses is reviewing the covenant before going into the promise land in Deuteronomy 29. He is addressing both Foreigner and Jew in Deuteronomy 29:8-14 giving both the promise.


So although it’s easy on the surface to blame Israel’s gripping on external sources they are human just like their Patriarchs. And let us not forget the one thing about the Patriarchs that make them beautiful is that they were flawed, just like me and you, yet they worked through these challenges and developed through the Father, Hashem. I believe the “rabble” in Numbers 11:4 is not about our excuse to blame others for our problems but our appreciation for all the things (manna) our Creator does for us.


(1) Parshah Behaalotecha, Numbers 8:1-12:16, Chabad.org

(2) Gerald Aranoff, The Mixed Multitude According to the Zohar

(3) International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, MINGLED PEOPLE; (MIXED MULTITUDE) (2)

(4) Rabble, Merriam-Websters Dictionary