Israel in Bondage, was it 430, 400 or 215 years?

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Center for Tanakh Based Studies

By: William Jackson

As we begin to read the Exodus in the Torah, we find a biblical riddle that has stumped people for ages, “how long were the children of Israel in Egypt?”.  It seems straight forward when Moses tells us that they were there for 430 years in Exodus 12:40-41. Yet, further back in Genesis 15:13 God says to Abraham that his people will be oppress for 400 years. Another issue that seems to surface, is that if we do the chronological math from Joseph’s brothers moving to Egypt and the Exodus, it is only 215 years.

So what is the answer 215 years in Egypt under oppression versus 430 years or even 400 years?  Let’s tackle the smallest number first, determining the 215 years in Egypt. If we add up the chronological linages in Genesis 46 and Exodus 6 we come up with  215 years rather than 400 or 430 years.  Other good points are that in the cases of Moses linage (Genesis 46:11, Exodus 6) and the infamous Reubenites who rebelled against Moses (Numbers 16) only two generations passed since entering Egypt (Genesis 46:9, Numbers 26:8–9).  This would appear that 215 years are more realistic than 400 or 430 years.

So what about the 400 and 430 years?  If we dig even deeper and examine the text maybe we will find our answer.  We see that God said to Abram (Abraham) in Genesis 15:3 “… your seed will be strangers in a land that is not theirs…”.  His seed would be Israel (Jacob) but also anybody else that came from him (Abraham), i.e. Isaac.  In addition, it doesn’t specify Egypt here, it clearly states that they (Abraham’s seed) “will be strangers in a land that is not theirs”.  Remember that Israel will not inherent its own land until they drove out Canaan’s inhabitants (Deuteronomy 9:1-6).  In support of this we hear Abraham say he was “a stranger in a strange land” in Genesis 23:4.  He makes this statement in Canaan, the future Israel.  So the clock for the 400 years would have started in Genesis 15 and not when Jacob’s clan entered Egypt (Genesis 45:4–6, 47:9).  Yet, if God states that Abraham’s people will be in a strange land for 400 years, why does Moses say they lived in Egypt for 430 years ( Exodus 12:40–41)?  Well, when God told Abraham his people would be strangers in a strange land it was in Genesis 15, Abraham was on the road for quite some time before getting this message from God.  In fact, it was first recorded that he went into Egypt three chapters earlier (Genesis 12:10). In truth, Abraham was in Egypt years before being told that his people would be strangers in a strange land for 400 years.  This could explain the 30 year discrepancy.

Here is a specific breakdown of the 215 years before Abraham’s people entered Egypt as Israel1:

1st 25 years passed from the time of Abraham’s arrival in Canaan at the age of 75 (Genesis 12:4) until the birth of Isaac, at which time Abraham was 100 years old (Genesis 21:5)

2nd 60 years passed from the birth of Isaac until the birth of Jacob (Genesis 25:26)

3rd 130 years passed from the birth of Jacob until he and his descendants moved to Egypt (Genesis 47:9)

25

60

130 +

215 Years

 

Now let us look at the 215 years after Jacob entered Egypt2:

1st Joseph reveals himself to his brothers two years into the famine with five years left (Genesis 45:4–6,47:9)

2nd 17 years pass and Jacob dies (Genesis 47:28–49:33).

3rd 54 years pass and Joseph dies (Genesis 50:26).

4th 64 years pass from the time Joseph dies to when Moses is born (Exodus 6:16–20).

5th Moses is 80 years old when he speaks to Pharaoh (Exodus 7:7, 12:40–41).

 

17

54

64

80 +

215 Years

 

Conclusion:

As bizarre as it might seem, our answers do not conflict, our questions do.  Simply stated, for each of our three answers (215, 400 and 430 years), we have three separate questions respectfully: 1. “How long was Israel in Egypt under oppression?”, 2. “How long will Abraham’s seed be a stranger without a home?” and 3. “How long was Abraham and his people in Egypt?”. Sometimes we gain more on the journey to our answers than the answers themselves.  To quote Moshe Ben-Chaim, “The Torah was purposefully written in a cryptic style so as to engage the mind in this most prized activity of analysis, induction, deduction and thought”. When we hit an obstacle in our readings we do not have a problem, we have a reason to study.

Reference:

  1. “How Many Years Were the Israelites in Egypt?” TheTorah.com. Accessed January 23, 2018. http://thetorah.com/how-many-years-were-the-israelites-in-egypt/.

 

  1. Wright, David. “How Long Were the Israelites in Egypt?” Answers in Genesis. July 05, 2010. Accessed January 23, 2018. https://answersingenesis.org/bible-questions/how-long-were-the-israelites-in-egypt/.

 

What is a “Holy Convocation” and how does it affect us today?

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Center for Tanakh Based Studies

By: William J Jackson

The Torah tells us no fewer than 17 times to have a “Holy Convocation”.  In doing so, it is referencing to both the Sabbath and six out of seven Feast and Festivals.  So, since this is such a critical piece for God’s appointed times, shouldn’t we know exactly what He means by Holy Convocation? Please join us with this phrase study to ensure that we are honoring God the way He intended us.

Firstly, “Holy Convocation” in Hebrew is “Miqra Qodesh” (מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ).  “Qodesh” meaning Holy, whereas “Miqra” could mean convocation or assembly.  Starting with Holy or qodesh, this word simply means holiness, sacredness and/or separateness.  When refereeing to God’s appointed times, this would infer a separation for God, making God centered and everything else irrelevant.

The second, and more controversial part of this phrase is miqra and is often interpreted as convocation. Webster’s defines a convocation as “an assembly of persons called together to a meeting”1.  Yes, convocation can be one of the definitions of miqra, but miqra has another definition which is “reading”2.  You see the root word of miqra is “qara”, which can mean to “recite, read, or proclaim”3.  So how do we decide which meaning to use or is it possible both meanings were interwoven for good reason?

There was a time when somebody was reading aloud, it implied there was a meeting taking place.  Likewise, it probably meant if somebody recited from the Torah during this meeting it was considered a Holy Meeting.  To validate this point, the word miqra can be synonymous with the word Tanakh because it stands for “that which is read”4. So, why did everyone have to assemble for a Torah reading?  Simple, it was a literacy issue.  Doctor Christopher A. Rollston, an Epigraphic Consultant for National Geographic, states “Literacy in ancient Israel and Judah was probably 15 or 20 percent of the population, at most,”5.  Additionally, not everyone had a Torah Scroll to read from.  For the average Israelite, there would have been a Torah Scroll at his or her local Synagogue.

However, during the Exodus they would not have had Synagogues as we understand them today, but they might have had a gathering where they recited God’s Word.  You see, if we look at Israel’s census in Numbers 26, we can total up the Israelite male population as 601,730.  If you add wives and children to this number, we can conservatively assume that there were over two million Israelites in the desert.  This would be a population larger than Houston, Texas (1,630,00 +) or the State of West Virginia (1,852,994).  Yet, in Deuteronomy, Moses gives speeches to these Israelites.  Begs the question, did Moses orate to 2 million plus people or did he adhere to advice his father-in-law Jethro gave him in Exodus 18:21.  This is where Jethro basically said to delegate – “…you should choose from among all the people competent men who are God-fearing, honest and incorruptible to be their leaders, in charge of thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens”.  God also gives Moses this same advice earlier (Exodus 3:16, 18, Numbers 11:16).  In fact, this is how the Israelites did their first Passover (Exodus 12:21).  So, although there was a central point that things were done, one could assume that individual leaders took information back to their flocks and disseminated.

israelite-high-priest-levite-torah-times-large

Later, after Israel entered the promised land, the Israelites would have priests.  As you recall, back in Exodus 28:1, God makes the Levites priests.  Thus, once Israel enters Canaan, these priests by design become disperses among the tribes.  Evidence for this can be found in Numbers 35:6-7 where God distributes the Levites among 48 cities.  Once the written Torah was copied, people could read aloud the Words of God in a gathering, i.e. have a “Holy Convocation” as commanded by Leviticus 23. This would have been the beginning concept of the Synagogue.  There is evidence of these early meeting houses, both archaeologically and in the Tanakh.  In Jeremiah 39:8 it says that the Babylonians burnt down the Palace and people’s houses.  If the “people’s house”6 was just residences, it would simply be houses.  “People’s houses” could imply a public area of significance.  A place of worship would meet this profile.  The name “Synagogue”7 wouldn’t come for another 300 years after the Babylonian captivity.  Synagogue was a Greek word used to label Israel’s houses of worship during the Hellenist period, around 323 BCE8.

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Ruins of Synagogue in Basilica

Getting to our meaning for “Miqra” (convocation/reading), we need to ask ourselves was this public reciting of the Torah done out of design or convenience? It is true that today we all have a Torah, most of us have several.  So, when we read our Torah on Sabbath, are we not having a “Holy Reading”?  Yes, this would appear to meet the requirements, but “the writings” do communicate there is a benefit to community:

Psalm 119:63 I am a friend of all who fear you, of those who observe your precepts.

Psalm 133:1 “…Oh, how good, how pleasant it is for brothers to live together in harmony”.

Psalm 145:4 Each generation will praise your works to the next and proclaim your mighty acts.

Proverbs 27:17 Just as iron sharpens iron, a person sharpens the character of his friend.

Proverbs 27:9 Perfume and incense make the heart glad, [also] friendship sweet with advice from the heart.

Yet, when we look at Exodus 16:29 we are told not to leave our homes on Sabbath.  So by us band our family spending time with God within the confines of our homes we are having a  “Miqra Qodesh” (Holy Convocation).

References

1.   “Convocation.” Merriam-Webster. Accessed January 13, 2018. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/convocation.

2.   The Lockman Foundation. “Entry for מִקְרָא.” New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance. La Habra, CA: Zondervan, 2004.

3.   Gesenius, Wilhelm. “Entry for קָרָא.” Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. London, UK: Samuel Bagster & Sons, Limited, exact publication date unknown.

4.   BIBLICAL STUDIES Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading and Interpretation. Norton Irish Theological Quarterly.2007; 72: 305-306

5.   Rollston, Christopher A. Writing and literacy in the world of ancient Israel: epigraphic evidence from the Iron Age. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

 6.   Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi). “Yirmiyahu – Jeremiah – Chapter 39.” Tanakh Online – Torah – Bible. Accessed January 13, 2018. http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16036/jewish/Chapter-39.htm#showrashi=true

 7.   Lewis N. Dembitz, Wilhelm Bacher, “JewishEncyclopedia.com.” SYNAGOGUE – JewishEncyclopedia.com. Accessed January 13, 2018. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14160-synagogue.

8.   Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013. Archived here.

Why a three-day Journey?

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Center for Tanakh Based Studies

By: William Jackson

Many people, when thinking about the Exodus, hear that line in their head from the movie and song… “♪ let my people go ♪”. Truthfully, God did tell Moses to tell Pharaoh this, nine separate times (Exodus 5:1, 7:16, 26, 8:16, 17, 9:1, 13, 10:3, 10:4).  Yet, people assume that Moses was asking Pharaoh to release the Israelites from captivity.  Moses was just asking for the Israelites to “journey into the desert; so that we can sacrifice to Adonai our God” (Exodus 3:18, 5:3, 8:23).  He also asked to do this over a three-day period. Begs the question, why three days?  Certainly, sacrificing could have been done in just one day. In addition, we need to ask ourselves, what is the threat to Pharaoh here?  All the Israelites wanted was an extended weekend?  We can find these answers on the pages of Exodus, so let’s dig in.

Slave or Laborer:

For starters, our first misnomer is thinking that the Israelites were slaves. Believe it or not, the Torah only mentions one group of slaves in Egypt, and that was the Egyptians.  Some bibles take liberties with the word slave, so instead of relying on them, let’s look at the actual Hebrew. If we look at Genesis 47:19 we see that Joseph helped, make slaves out of the Egyptians.  Ironically, it was voluntary, since they were desperate to find a way to survive the famine.  The word used here is “Ebed” which means slave or servant.  This is the word used to describe Joseph in his relationship to Potiphar. The word used for the Israelite bondage is “Abad” which is forced labor.  This is the word to describe Jacob’s relationship to Laban (Genesis 31:41) and even the condition King Solomon had the Israelites build the Temple (1 King 9:21).  Now, just because it was forced labor verses slavery does not mean that the work was less torturous or demeaning.  But, there is an important point that is missed here if we were to assume the Israelites were slaves.  A slave owns nothing and is owned.  The Israelites, conversely, had property, Goshen (Exodus 8:22).  Likewise, they were expected to contribute the straw to make bricks (Exodus 5:7).  A slave’s master would be responsible for contributing resources and one of those resources is his slave. Likewise, if you were property and escaped, your master had the right to retrieve you.  On the other hand, if you were not property and left the jurisdiction of a tyrant, you were no longer controlled.

Three Days to the Border:

Pharaoh, who had a vested interest in keeping his conscripted labor, probably did not want to give them the opportunity to escape his control. So why not let them sacrifice for one day locally? Well, there was an issue with this as we see in Exodus 8:25 after the plague of the flies.  Here, Pharaoh concedes and tells Moses his people can sacrifice, but they will do it in Egypt. Moses retorts that the Egyptians will stone the Israelites because the Egyptians detest sacrifice (Exodus 8:26).  Therefore, Moses insists they will need three days to leave the land and sacrifice (Exodus 8:27). Thus, we know that it would take three days to get out of the region.  If we look at a map from that period, Egypt territory was a lot more extended than it is now (1).

01-empire-egyptian

Egyptian Blasphemy:

So why did the Egyptians detest sacrifices?  Some historians might say the Egyptians worshiped animals, the truth is that they didn’t see animals as deities. More accurately, they saw some animals as symbols of their gods (2).  Therefore, sacrificing an animal would have been the highest sign of disrespect to their gods. Thus, the Israelites would have to get out of stone’s range before sacrificing. This is why sacrificing the Passover Lamb while still in Egypt showed a lot of “Chutzpah”. It also showed their commitment to God and the journey.

Sanctuary:

So, letting the Israelite travel outside of the Egypt’s reign of control would be the equivalency of allowing an East German free access to West Germany during the cold war, or allowing somebody entree into city of refuge.  Once that person could access safety, why would they return?  Pharaoh knew this, maybe that is why he was so passionate in perusing the Israelites after they took off on their trek.

Conclusion:

Granted Moses only beseeched for a three-day journey to Pharaoh on behalf of God.  It should be noted that he never said to Pharaoh he would be returning his people to the brickyards. Sure, some might say that this was a loophole, but, in the end, it was Pharaoh who told them all to get out of Egypt (Exodus 12:31-33).

References:

  1. “Map of The Egyptian Empire (Bible History Online).” Bible History Online. Accessed January 09, 2018. 

 

  1. Jackson, William J. “The Passover Lamb, making a commitment.” Center for Tanakh Based Studies. January 26, 2017. Accessed January 09, 2018.

 

Who was the Pharaoh(s) in the Torah?

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Center for Tanakh Based Studies

By: William J. Jackson

When we read the first four chapters of the Exodus we keep hearing about this dysfunctional Pharaoh.  He first forgets about what Joseph did for Egypt during the famine.  He then becomes threaten by the Israelites growing in numbers. As a cruel solution, he orders the Hebrew boys murdered.  Finally, it appears that Moses understandably confronts this inflexible Emperor to have the Israelites released from Egypt.  This Ruler is not a pleasant fella.  Yet, what if I said this was not correct, and that we are talking about several Pharaohs here not just one. Likewise, we are not only talking over a period but a span of 400-years in history where the context of each statement isn’t as straight forward as it seems.  So, lets grab our Torah, a history book and some physical evidence so that we can triangulate some worthy answers.

Genesis 41 – 50, Joseph Saves Egypt, (1886 – 1806 BCE)

joseph-and-pharaoh

For saving Egypt during the famine, Joseph was promoted to a position second only Pharaoh. The Pharaoh that promoted him was more than likely King Senusret III.  This would have been during Egypt’s golden age, the 12th Dynasty (C. 2055-1786 B.C.).  Despite a seven year worldwide famine, Egypt would excel underneath Joseph’s charge.  This was due to the Abrahamic covenant gained through Joseph (Genesis 12:3).

Exodus 1, Israelites Multiply in Egypt, (1800 – 1700 BCE)

Pharaoh-Main

At the time of Joseph’s death, Egypt moved into their 13 Dynasty.  It was almost like the death of Joseph ushered in Egypt’s dark age.  Within the Egyptian government there was much end fighting and jockeying for power that created an instability.  Additionally, since the end of the 12th Dynasty there had been an influx of foreigners entering Egypt due to famine.  Many, like the Israelites, came from Canaan. The Hyksos, which was a group of refugees from the middle east began to settle Egypt’s Nile Delta.  Remember, this was where the Israelites lived in Goshen.  The Hyksos population appear to have come into Egypt after the Israelites between 50 and 100 years.

Exodus 1:8, Israelites Oppressed by New King, (1600 BCE)

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The Hyksos gained in power and began to rule Egypt in the mid-1600 BCE.  This was the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt.  The Hyksos kings were “Egyptianized,” assuming the title of Pharaoh 1.  Now let’s read this Torah passage from this time frame:

Now there arose a new king over Egypt. He knew nothing about Yosef but said to his people, “Look, the descendants of Isra’el have become a people too numerous and powerful for us. Come, let’s use wisdom in dealing with them. Otherwise, they’ll continue to multiply; and in the event of war they might ally themselves with our enemies, fight against us and leave the land altogether.” – Exodus 1:8-10

The new King referred to in the passage might have been a Hyksos King, since they were the ruling class at this time. Therefore, he said, “He knew nothing about Yosef”.  As a foreign people why should they care about what Joseph did for Egypt over 200 years earlier.  Also, this King seems threatened by Israel’s numbers.  We need to be aware that the Egyptian were continually clashing with the Hyksos to regain power.  The enemy the King was afraid the Israelites would unite with may have been the Egyptians (Exodus 1:8-10). Why not, the Egyptians up to this were possibly still amicable with the Israelites.

Exodus 1:22, Pharaoh’s Order to Kill Firstborn, (1539 BCE)

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When we read Exodus 1, it appears to be the same Pharaoh, but it is probably not.  There are decades and much history that spans Exodus 1:8 and 22.  During the time frame that the Pharaoh ordered the first born Israelite babies killed, the ruler was probably an Egyptian Pharaoh after the Hyksos were defeated.  This would have been during 18th Dynasty and a time in Egypt known as the “New Kingdom”.  Many of these first Kings in the beginning of the 18th Dynasty would have had a distrust and grunge against any foreigners in their land. Granted, the Israelites were probably not Hyksos but there was guilt by association.  Both groups were from Canaan, both groups settled in Goshen generally during the same time and both groups were foreigners. So, the Pharaoh ordered “Every boy that is born, throw in the river; but let all the girls live.” This may have been an order towards all foreigners.

Exodus 2, The Birth and Adoption of Moses (1525 BCE)

Cleopatra

Thutmose I is a good fit for the Pharaoh whose daughter adopted Moses. The reason we finger him is because his son was more than likely the Pharaoh that would not release the Israelites. So, why can’t these be the same Pharaohs? Simple, in Exodus 2:23 we find out that the Pharaoh dies while Moses is in Median, so the Pharaoh that ordered the Hebrew boys killed and the Pharaoh who Moses argues with are two different Pharaohs.

Exodus 3, Moses Sent to Deliver Israel (1446 BCE)

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Thutmose II is the best candidate to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Firstly, he had a brief yet productive reign.  Secondly, history records his collapse with no son to succeed him2. This supports Exodus 11:5 that states the Pharaoh’s son will die.  Additionally, a recent CAT scan of Thutmose II reveals a boil scar3 possibly evidence of the plague of the boils (Exodus 9:8-35). Not only does Thutmose II corpse show boil scares but many of the Egyptian corps from this time do.

Conclusion:

It is interesting that Pharaoh says he does not know God (Exodus 5:2). Yet, today we know God, but history does not know Pharaoh. Maybe this is because the important piece here is that these four Pharaohs that are confused for one are just an amalgamation.  Knowing who they were just isn’t important to the narrative of the Torah.  Thus, knowing the history of a pagan nation gives us a contrasting backdrop to the struggle of God’s people.  You see at the end of the day there is really on one that is important – the victory secured for us by God.

References:

  1. “Hyksos Egyptian dynasty.” Encyclopedia Britannica. November 08, 2017. Accessed December 31, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hyksos-Egyptian-dynasty.

 

  1. Edersheim, Alfred. Bible history: Old Testament. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995.

 

  1. Kaspar, Ed, Evidence of the Exodus: Scars from the plague of the boils, kasparedward@att.net, 2009

Joseph’s in Egypt, what you didn’t know.

Joseph in egypt

When you look through a pair of binoculars, you can’t just put them up against your face and expect to see things clearly.  True, you may be able to see something, but the image is usually obscured.  By dialing the focus wheel, things come into perspective.  This often holds true when studying Torah.  Sometimes we need the complete context to process what we read in Scripture.  For instance, by not understanding Egypt, there are many things in the Torah narrative that come across as disjointed (Genesis 41:37-57, 47:13-31).  For example, putting a foreigner over your government (Genesis 41:40)?  And how did God allow Egypt to thrive in a worldwide famine?  The answers are on the pages of Torah.  Come let us delve into the Torah while using the contextual history as our backdrop and give Joseph’s story its deserved dimension.

Prosperity in the face of Travesty:

Firstly, the term Pharaoh, which means “Great House”, came into existence around 1570 BCE, after Joseph and before Moses.  During Joseph’s time, the Pharaoh would have been called King1. This King, would have been Senusret III.  Senusret III reigned during Egypt’s golden age where the country experience great economic wealth.  Paradoxically, here we have a King who is an economic icon during a 7-year famine.  Now this 7-year famine wasn’t just in the middle east, history records it as being worldwide 2.   For us, as Believers, we can credit the Abrahamic covenant as the blessings that befell Egypt (Genesis 12:3) during this time of deprivation. As the King says about Joseph “Can we find anyone else like him? The Spirit of God lives in him!” (Genesis 41:38) and then he gave Joseph control. However, how easy is it for the king to relinquish control to an outsider?

Interestingly, Egypt was purposefully divided into parts by the King for the design of management.  This would be like states or provinces. Each territory had a “vizier” assigned to it that managed that area.  The vizier was second in command to the King. He was like a governor. Genesis 41:40 seems to imply that Joseph was made a vizier (governor).  However, the King says that Joseph will command “all the land” (Genesis 41:41).  Since Egypt was divided into at least two parts: Lower Egypt which is to the North and Upper Egypt to the South, it is possible that the King may have meant that Joseph would command Lower Egypt.  Lower Egypt was the more significant half because it possessed Memphis the capitol.  Likewise, with Joseph controlling the capital he might have had a significant influence on the other half of Egypt.  Additionally, Goshen where Joseph’s family lived, was in Lower Egypt. Alcohological findings now points to a Palace belonging to an Egyptian Official living in Goshen amongst the Semitics3. More than likely this is Joseph.

Establishing the mantle of leadership:

In Egyptian royalty a technique was adopted to help rule over the people.  It was called “Shemsu Hor”.  Basically, this was the king and his entourage parading through Egypt making the king’s presence and power known to his subjects. The ulterior motive for this was that the King was also assessing these areas for taxes.  Therefore, in Genesis 41:43, almost immediately after promoting Joseph, the King “had him ride in his second-best chariot; and they cried before him, “Bow down!” Thus, he placed him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.”.  This would not have only have been an Egyptian costume showing that a new ruler was in power, in addition it allowed Joseph to assess the area before the famines he predicted.

Egyptian Society Progresses:

As we read on, the famine got so bad that the people gave up everything, finally giving themselves into slavery (Genesis 47:19-21).  As Rahm Emanuel, the mayor of Chicago, said, “You never let a serious crisis go to waste”4 and so Joseph and the Egyptian government capitalized on the moment.  They secured all private property, turning around and issued seed to the people (Genesis 47:23).  They did this under the condition that the people would give 20% of their crops to the government (Genesis 47:26).  This is interestingly when we examine Egypt as an agrarian (farming) society.  You see, each community in Egypt was broken down into smaller communities called Nomes.  This would be like our modern-day cities and towns.  The peasants would work the land and give their proceeds to the head of their Nome.  This person was the land owner and was called a Nomarch. History records that during the reign of King Senusret III, the Nomarchs were eliminated. Likewise, during his reign, we see the development of a middle class.  Here, the history books appear stumped.  Yet, we look at the Torah we see the truth.  Simply said, Joseph cut out the middle man, this is because the need for Nomarchs was eliminated when the King owned all the land directly. Likewise, with the peasants now serving the government directly and having fair taxation, a thriving middle class would have been developed. Yes, 20% taxation does sound extreme, but today’s average American, between Federal and State taxes, pays more.

Interestingly, around this time, the King instituted a police force 2 to assist in him enforcing the law.  With recorded famines and possible upheaval, the police force may have been necessary. Likewise, it would have been beneficial because now Egypt no longer had middle managers (Nomarchs) to control the people.

Conclusion:

Sadly, there are many publications out there that dismiss the Israelites as being in Egypt between the 18th and 14th century BCE.  Likewise, our ancient history books have anomalies that cannot explain away simple facts like “How did Egypt thrive during a worldwide famine?”, “What happen to Egypt’s Landowners (Nomarchs)?” and “How did an emerging middle-class end up in Egypt during all of this?”.  Through God, these answers are simple.  Like a missing puzzle piece, the Torah “snaps!” in and the picture is complete.

References:

  1. Mark, Joshua J. “Ancient Egyptian Government.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. October 13, 2016. Accessed December 30, 2017. https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Government/.
  2. “In Search of Truth.” Joseph’s 7 Year Famine Has Now Been Verified! – In Search of Truth. January 22, 2013. Accessed December 30, 2017. http://forums.insearchoftruth.org/viewtopic.php?t=3765.
  3. McCall, Thomas S. “Has Joseph’s Tomb Been Found in Egypt?” Zola Levitt Ministries. July 1999. Accessed December 31, 2017. https://www.levitt.com/essays/joseph.
  1. Finley, Allysia. “Republicans Won’t Let Chicago’s School Crisis Go to Waste.” The Wall Street Journal. August 25, 2017. Accessed December 30, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/republicans-wont-let-chicagos-school-crisis-go-to-waste-1503701116.